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石見銀山 (Iwami Ginzan)

石見銀山(いわみぎんざん)は島根県大田市にあった銀山。 鎌倉時代末期には既に採掘が行われていたとされ、戦国時代後期から江戸時代前期にかけて最盛期を迎えた日本最大の銀山である。当時世界の銀の3割を産出したと推定されている。 大森銀山(おおもりぎんざん)とも呼ばれ、江戸時代初期は佐摩銀山(さまぎんざん)と呼ばれた。明治期以降は銅などの鉱物が主に採鉱された。 1868年(明治元年)に田中義太郎が経営権を取得するも、1872年(明治5年)の浜田地震の被害を受けて休山。1886年(明治19年)からは大阪の藤田組(後に同和鉱業から現在はDOWAホールディングス)により大森鉱山として経営され、1895年には清水谷(しみずだに)に西洋の技術を導入して製錬所が建設されたが、1年半余りで閉鎖。要害山の西麓に当たる柑子谷(こうじだに)に製錬所が建設され、銅を主力に金・銀の製錬及び精錬が開始された。しかし銅価格の暴落や坑内環境の悪化などにより1923年(大正12年)に休山。その後、日中戦争、太平洋戦争の最中、軍需物資としての銅の国産化を目論んで、1941年(昭和16年)より銅の再産出を試みるものの、1943年(昭和18年)の水害で坑道が水没する大打撃を受け完全閉山となった。鉱業権はDOWAホールディングスが保有している。 石見銀山遺跡とその文化的景観として世界遺産に指定されている。 銀山採掘のために掘られた「間歩」(まぶ)と呼ばれる坑道や水抜き坑が700余り確認されており、釜屋間歩、龍源寺間歩、大久保間歩、永久坑道などがある。石見銀山資料館から徒歩圏内の龍源寺間歩は、通年で一般公開され内部を見学できる。2008年より、大久保間歩の内部も一般公開されたが、ツアー形式で週末のみ限定公開となっている。 ほか、清水谷精錬所、金生坑(きんせいこう)および精錬所までのトロッコ跡など数多くの遺構が残る。

Iwami Ginzan

Iwami Ginzan (Iwami Ginzan) is a silver mountain located in Ota City, Shimane Prefecture. It is said that the mining was already carried out in the late Kamakura period, and it is Japan's largest silver mountain which reached its peak in the late Sengoku period and the Edo period. It is estimated that 30% of the world's silver was produced at that time. Also known as Omori Ginzan (Omori Ginzan), in the early Edo period was called Sasa Ginzan (Ginsenzan). From the Meiji Period, minerals such as copper were mainly mined. Even though Tanaka Yoshitaro acquired management rights in 1868 (the first Meiji period), it was closed due to the damage of the Hamada earthquake in 1872 (Meiji 5). From 1886 (Meiji 19) it was operated as Omori mine by Osaka's Fujita group (from Dowa Mining later on from Dowa Holdings), and in 1895 introduced Western technology to Shimizuya (Shimizu-don) and smelting The place was constructed, but it closed for about a year and a half. A smelter was built in the Kutsuya valley (Koji Daini) hitting the western foot of the mountain, and smelting and refining of gold and silver started with copper as the mainstay. However, it was closed in 1923 (Taisho 12) due to the collapse of copper prices and deterioration of the underground environment. After that, during the Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War, although attempting the domestic production of copper as a munition supply material, attempting to produce copper again in 1941 (Showa 16), in 1943 (1943) flood damage It was completely closed due to a huge hit where the tunnel was submerged. Mineral rights are owned by Dowa Holdings. It is designated as a World Heritage Site as the Iwami Ginzan Archaeological Site and its cultural landscape. More than 700 galleries and water draining pits called "Walking" (dug) which were drilled for mining the silver mine have been confirmed, and there are such as Kamaya's intersection, Longsong-ji Temple walking, Okubo intersection, permanent tunnel etc. . Within walking distance from Iwami Ginzan Materials Museum, Longmen Temple walking is open to the public all year and you can see the inside. From 2008, the interior of Okubo 's walk has been open to the public, but it has been made public for the weekend only in the tour format. In addition, numerous other remains such as the Shimizutani refinery, Kinsei pit (Kinsaiko) and trawl tracks to refineries remain.

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